OUTLINE: History of Chemistry*

More Detailed Introduction to the Website

I. Ancient Knowledge and Thought (up to 1500)
eventually leading to chemistry
A. Ancient Practical Arts
B. Ancient Speculations
C. Earliest ideas of elements
D. Alchemy and Practical Arts: 
(medieval (8th - 13th Century))     
(late (14th - 17th Century))

II. Precursors to Modern Chemistry
A. Iatrochemistry, Pneumatic Chemistry.
B. Understandings of Combustion and Calcination
including phlogiston and its downfall.
C. Contemporary People and
Developments in Technology
D. Elements (discovered between 1500 and 1800).          
E. Earliest Modern Chemistry (1750-1800):
Cavendish,  ScheeleLavoisier,  Priestley, et al.
III. Beyond 1800:
A. General, Analytical and Physical Chemistry
Dalton's Atomic Theory, electrolysis of salts (and water),
Berzelius' Dualistic Theory, Radical Theory,
Oxygen Theory of acids,
Early Thermochemistry (1800-1850),
Discovery of Elements and
Development of Technology (1800-1950)
(1850-1900) Valence, atomic weights, the Periodic Law,
electrolytes, and radiation.
(1900-1960) Einstein, isotopes, nuclear atom,
ion exchange, etc.

B. Organic Chemistry and Biochemistry
(1800-1850) Wöhler, beginnings of Organic and
Biochemistry; early ideas of fats;
Radical Theory, Type Theory.
(1850-1900) Molecular structure, synthetic dyes,
(1900-1950) Organic synthesis (aided by spectroscopy),
hormones, polymers, antibiotics, vitamins,
biochemistry, enzymes, and proteins.
Indexes of Subjects, People, elements {(pre-1800) and (post-1800), and arranged in a Periodic Chart }, Nobel Prizes and Winners
Other explanatory materials: origin of the term "chemistry"; symbols used in this site; a Museum's brief  History of Chemistry and
History of Science(with some references to mathematics).
To see examples of classic papers in chemistry, go to Professor Carmen Giunta's website.
*A new presentation by Robert B. Gayhart (Department of Chemistry, Bradley University, Peoria, IL 61625; e-mail: rbg@bradley.edu) of the "Mallinckrodt Outline of the History of Chemistry", a 1961 poster ( or magnified image of a portion of the poster) by Herbert S. Klickstein, which was in turn based upon the original 1927 Outline of the History of Chemistry by Norris K. Rakestraw, former editor of the Journal of Chemical Education.
Click on the image pre-history until 1800 in order to see the part of the Mallinckrodt poster which summarizes the History of Chemistry up to 1800 and click on the image 1800 to ~1950 in order to see the Outline of the History of Chemistry from 1800 until approximately 1950.

Help improve this site! Individuals and small groups are needed to enhance this site (in cooperation with other knowledgeable chemists and/or historians.

Thanks for accessing this site; yours is visit number   .